Heart Health

Coronary angioplasty and stenting

Coronary angioplasty and stenting

Coronary angioplasty is a procedure to treat blocked arteries. It is often accompanied by placing a stent to keep the artery open and maintain normal blood circulation to the heart. What is a stent? A coronary artery stent is a small, metal mesh tube capable of self-expanding. It is placed… Read more »

Endocarditis

Endocarditis

The heart is a vital organ that pumps blood continuously, supplying oxygen and nutrients to every cell in the body.  What is Endocarditis? Potentially fatal infection of the heart is endocarditis. The inner heart layer or lining is called the endocardium. When the bacteria gain entry into the blood, it… Read more »

Myocardial Infarction: Sign and Symptoms, Advise from Physician

Myocardial Infarction: Sign and Symptoms, Advise from Physician

Sign and Symptoms of Myocardial Infarction Severe chest pain similar to angina but usually more severe, longer-lasting and not relieved by taking rest or consuming sublingual nitrates Chest pain is tightness, pressure or squeezing in nature and generally radiates to the left arm, neck, jaw, back It may mimic heartburn… Read more »

Hypertension

Hypertension

Sign and Symptoms of Hypertension Maybe asymptomatic Dizziness Headache (especially pulsating headaches behind the eyes that occur early in the morning) Blurred vision Facial flushing or tinnitus (ringing sound in the ears) Very severe hypertension (SBP >240 mmHg or DBP >120 mmHg) is associated with confusion, visual disturbances, nausea and… Read more »

Heart Failure: Signs and Symptoms

Heart Failure: Signs and Symptoms

Signs and Symptoms of Heart Failure Shortness of breath at rest or with activities or night Fatigue Chronic cough Swollen legs Excess fluid in the peritoneal cavity Liver enlargement Generalized body edema Other symptoms Abdominal bloating Nausea Constipation The doctor can identify the condition by Distension of neck veins Abdominal… Read more »

Angina: Signs and Symptoms

Angina: Signs and Symptoms

Signs and Symptoms of Angina Chest pain or discomfort, the pain generally radiates to the left side of the shoulder, arm, jaw, and back Difficulty in breathing, sweating, nausea, vomiting, and paleness, etc  Feeling of doom  Typically, angina is precipitated by exertion or emotional stress but may also occur during… Read more »

Blood Vessels: Anatomy and Physiology

Blood Vessels: Anatomy and Physiology

Blood vessels comprise the vascular system. All blood vessels consist of a similar basic structure, which includes: Tunica Intima—This is the inner thinnest layer. Tunica Media—This is the middle thickest layer.  Tunica Adventitia—This is an outermost layer and contains nerves. Types of Blood Vessels Arteries Blood is carried to various… Read more »

Blood: Components of Blood and its Functions

Blood: Components of Blood and its Functions

Blood is a mixture of cells and a watery liquid called ‘plasma.’ The blood also consists of hormones, clotting agents, nutrients, and waste products.  There are three kinds of blood cells. 1. Erythrocytes or Red Blood Cells These cells are made up of 40–45% of the blood and give its… Read more »

What is Blood Pressure?

What is Blood Pressure?

Blood pressure is the pressure of the blood exerted on the walls of the blood vessels. Blood pressure is created when the heart pumps the blood into the arteries and the force exerted by the arteries to resist the flow of blood.Systole is the contraction of the heart chambers. Systolic… Read more »

Heart Sounds

Heart Sounds

Heart Sounds The heart produces four sounds, which can be heard through the instrument called ‘stethoscope’. The first sound, ‘Lub’ and the second sound, ‘Dub,’ can be heard. The third and fourth sounds cannot be heard. The closure of the atrioventricular valves produces the first sound. This is loud and… Read more »

Electrocardiography

Electrocardiography

An electrocardiogram records the electrical current generated by the heart and is generally used to evaluate the cardiac status. P, R, and T are the three slow, negative changes. The P wave is caused by the contraction of the atria, is also known as the depolarization of the atria. The… Read more »

Conduction System of Heart

Conduction System of Heart

The nerve impulse for cardiac contraction is transmitted through the heart’s conduction system and directed by the nervous system. This system consists of the following: Sinoatrial node (SAN) Atrioventricular node (AVN) Bundle of His Purkinje fibers The whole sequence is summarized through the following steps. The sinoatrial node (SAN) is… Read more »

Heart: Anatomy and Physiology

Heart: Anatomy and Physiology

The heart is a cone-shaped, four-chambered muscular organ and sized about a man’s fist. It weighs about 250–300 g. The heart is located in the chest area, between the lungs with two-thirds of the mass towards the left midline and its apex pointing towards the left. The walls of the… Read more »

CABG – Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

CABG – Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

Coronary artery disease is also called as coronary heart disease, Atherosclerotic heart disease, CAD, CHD Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting is a surgery for treating severe coronary artery disease (CAD) and improving blood circulation to the heart. Why is it performed?  First, we need to understand what coronary artery disease is…. Read more »

Atherosclerosis: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis & Treatment

Atherosclerosis: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis & Treatment

Overview of atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis refers to the development of fatty deposits on the walls of the medium and large blood vessels. These fatty deposits commonly known as atheromas or atherosclerotic plaques obstruct the normal flow of blood through the blood vessels. Atherosclerosis is the most common type of arteriosclerosis (thickening… Read more »